Morton's neuroma is an inflammation of the nerves in the foot that go to the toes. Although the name includes the word ?neuroma,? it is not really a tumor. It can affect any of the toes in the foot. However, it most often affects the nerves that run between the third and fourth, or second and third toes.
Various factors have been implicated in the precipitation of Morton's neuroma. Morton's neuroma is known to develop as a result of chronic nerve stress and irritation, particularly with excessive toe dorsiflexion. Poorly fitting and constricting shoes (ie, small toe box) or shoes with heel lifts often contribute to Morton's neuroma. Women who wear high-heeled shoes for a number of years or men who are required to wear constrictive shoe gear are at risk. A biomechanical theory of causation involves the mechanics of the foot and ankle. For instance, individuals with tight gastrocnemius-soleus muscles or who excessively pronate the foot may compensate by dorsiflexion of the metatarsals subsequently irritating of the interdigital nerve. Certain activities carry increased risk of excessive toe dorsiflexion, such as prolonged walking, running, squatting, and demi-pointe position in ballet.
A Morton's neuroma causes a "burning" sharp pain and numbness on the bottom of the foot in the involved area, and this pain and numbness can radiate to the nearby toes. The pain is usually increased by walking or when the ball of the foot is squeezed together and decreased with massaging. It may force a person to stop walking or to limp from the pain.
Diagnosis of Morton?s Neuroma typically involves a physical examination of the affected foot. Your health care provider will ask you about your symptoms and examine your feet and toes. He will manipulate your toes, pushing them from side to side and squeezing on the spaces in between. This physical exam will allow your health care provider to feel for any lumps that may be present under the soft tissue of your feet. Your health care provider may also listen for any clicking sounds that your bones may be making. Known as Muldor?s Sign, this clicking is common amongst sufferers of foot neuroma. Occasionally, an x-ray or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is performed to help rule out any breaks, sprains, or fractures in your foot.
Non Surgical Treatment
There are various options for treating the condition, depending on its severity. Self-treatment. Here are some simple steps that may improve symptoms. Wear supportive shoes with a wide toe box. Do not lace the forefoot of the shoe too tightly. Shoes with shock-absorbent soles and proper insoles are recommended. Do not wear tight or pointed toed shoes or shoes with heels more than 2 inches high. Use over-the-counter shoe pads to relieve pressure. Apply an ice pack to the affected area to reduce pain and swelling. Rest your feet and massage the painful area. There are drugs that may temporarily relieve the pain and other symptoms of Morton?s neuroma. Long-term use of these medications is not recommended. Anti-inflammatory drugs-Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or aspirin, may be taken orally to reduce pain and inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs can also be administered by direct injection into the skin. Local anesthetic. An anesthetic injection will temporarily relieve pain by numbing the affected nerve. Orthotics. These are custom-designed shoe inserts that can reduce some of the pain associated with Morton?s neuroma. Sometimes padding is placed around the toe area, and tape is applied to hold the padding in place.
Majority of publications including peer review journal articles, surgical technique description and textbooks promote surgical excision as a gold standard treatment. Surgical excision is described as the most definitive mode of treatment for symptomatic Morton?s neuroma with reported success rates varying between 79% and 93%. Various surgical techniques are described, essentially categorised as dorsal versus plantar incision approaches. Beyond this the commonest technical variation described as influencing the outcome of surgery involves burying and anchoring transacted nerve into soft tissue such as muscle.
To help reduce your chance of developing Morton's neuroma avoid wearing tight and/or high-heeled shoes. Maintain or achieve ideal body weight. If you play sports, wear roomy, properly fitting athletic footwear.